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January 12 2018

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January 11 2018

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Compost turning a co-operative effort

Considering the price tag of new combines, farmers and folks in the agriculture business have grown accustomed to $400,000 machines. Yet, during the annual Manitoba Pasture Tour in late July, livestock producers, industry representatives and provincial forage experts were fascinated by a peculiar piece of machinery at a farm east of Steinbach, Man.

Most of the 60 participants on the tour had never seen an industrial scale compost turner before, so Gerry Dubé, interim director of the Compostages Manitoba Services Co-op, had to field more than a dozen questions about the machine and composting.

Last summer, Dubé and other producers in southeastern Manitoba formed the compost co-operative, the first of its kind in Canada, which owns and operates the windrow turner.

The co-operative rents out the turner to members and non-members so livestock producers can manage the compost on their farm.

After holding demonstrations and attending meetings over the last year, the co-op now has 26 members — mostly cattle and dairy farmers in southeastern Manitoba.

“With one machine we could probably serve between 60 to 75 (members),” said Dubé, who farms near La Broquerie and used to run a business called BDM Composting.

The machine, a Backhus 17.50, made in Germany, can handle a windrow of manure that is 4.9 metres wide and 2.5 m high (16 by eight feet). The machine, which straddles the windrow and runs on tracks, can turn 400 tonnes of manure, or more, per hour.

Standing next to a 250 m long windrow of manure at a farm near Marchand, Man., Dubé said each lineal foot of the windrow represents one tonne of manure.

Members of the co-op must pay $500 for the first hour of compost turning on their farm and $250 for every subsequent hour. It isn’t cheap to convert manure into compost, but it does substantially cut the cost of transporting raw manure from a feedlot to the field, said Katherine Buckley, an Agriculture Canada scientist in Brandon.

Back in the late 1990s, Buckley and other scientists at the Brandon Research Centre wanted to haul manure from the centre and apply it to fields south of town.

After evaluating their options they realized that composting was the best option.

“Instead of hauling 10,000 tonnes of raw manure, we were hauling four or five thousand tonnes of compost,” she said.

While hog manure is readily available in southeastern Manitoba, composting has several advantages over injecting hog manure, Dubé said.

“Compost is about 40 percent moisture. So you’re hauling way less moisture out onto the field,” he said, noting that hog manure is nearly all water.

Further, adding compost increases the amount of organic matter and helps the soil hold more water, Dubé said, who explained that most producers in the co-op apply their compost to cropland.

From an economic perspective, producing and applying compost probably makes the most sense for high value crops like potatoes, Buckley said.

“I think that’s where the biggest bang for the buck is…. If you take the actual value of nutrients, right now with the price of fertilizer, compost is very competitive in terms of value per kg.”

Using a potato crop as an example, Buckley said the long term impact of compost isn’t well understood. Nonetheless, there is evidence that compost can build up nutrient reserves in the soil.

“After you apply compost in the potato year (of the rotation), your rotational crop may not require any nutrients. That’s a huge benefit.”

In spite of its positive attributes, only a fraction of livestock farmers in Western Canada turn their manure into compost, Buckley admitted.

The time and labour associated with composting make it less attractive than other fertilizers. Another deterrent is that the process isn’t well understood, Buckley said.

“There isn’t a lot of science required,” she said. “People are somewhat intimidated because they think it requires a lot of monitoring. But you get a feel for it.”

Composting may also have an image problem, as most Canadians likely associate compost with a box of rotting food waste in an urban backyard.

Even though it’s coupled to the green and organic movement, Dubé said most of the farmers in the compost co-operative are conventional producers.

“This is not about putting a label on things, it’s about sustainability,” he said. “And it’s about economics as well. If you’re putting a product back on the land and if you’re saving energy in the process and if you’re also improving your soil, your bottom line is improved as well.”

For more information on composting technologies, please mail to info@compost-turner.net

December 27 2017

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Panda

December 26 2017

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Electrolysis - Refining Of Copper

Unlike aluminum, copper metal is fairly easy to obtain chemically from its ores. But by electrolysis, it can be refined and made very pure—up to 99.999%. Pure copper is important in making electrical wire, because copper's electrical conductivity is reduced by impurities. These impurities include such valuable metals as silver, gold and platinum; when they are removed by electrolysis and recovered, they go a long way toward paying the electricity bill.

In the electrolytic refining of copper, the impure copper is made from the anode in an electrolyte bath of copper sulfate, CuSO4, and sulfuric acid H2SO4. The cathode is a sheet of very pure copper. As current is passed through the solution, positive copper ions, Cu2+, in the solution are attracted to the negative cathode, where they take on electrons and deposit themselves as neutral copper atoms, thereby building up more and more pure copper on the cathode. Meanwhile, copper atoms in the positive anode give up electrons and dissolve into the electrolyte solution as copper ions. But the impurities in the anode do not go into solution because silver, gold and platinum atoms are not as easily oxidized (converted into positive ions) as copper is. So the silver, gold and platinum simply fall from the anode to the bottom of the tank, where they can be scraped up.

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Morocco’s OCP to Build Fertilizer Factory in India

Morocco’s phosphates are gaining more market share. Expected to be the world’s first phosphates exporter by 2020,  OCP seeks to boost its organic fertilizer production in Asia.

This new partnership of a USD 230 million investment aims to develop  OCP and India’s fertilizer production through the construction of a new unit with a yearly production capacity of 1.2 million tonnes of fertilizer.

Moroccan Minister of Equipment, Transport, and Water Logistics, Abdelkader Amara, said that “Morocco and India are working together on four economic projects,” one of which will be established in India.

Amara, who leads a Moroccan delegation in a work visit to India from  December 14-21, told  Maghreb Arab Press agency (MAP) that this unit “will further boost the economic bilateral relations between the two countries.”

Mohamed Malki, Morocco’s ambassador to India said that “the architectural studies for this project are underway,” specifying that the fertilizer factory should be operational by June or July 2018.

During the visit, Amara held talks with several senior Indian officials, including the Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, Mubasher Jawad Akbar, as well as the Ministers of Health and Family, Railways and Transport, Highways and sea freight.

These meetings were concluded by the signing of bilateral agreements and memoranda of understanding in several sectors, particularly in the field of health and the fight against epidemics, telemedicine, railways, roads, port infrastructure and water resources.

December 02 2017

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2622 21b2 500
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Compost Manufacturing Process

Compost Manufacturing Process
The production of compost is both a mechanical and a biological process. The raw materials must first be separated, collected, and shredded by mechanical means before the biological decomposition process can begin. In some cases, the decomposition process itself is aided by mechanical agitation or aeration of the materials. After decomposition, the finished compost is mechanically screened and bagged for distribution.

There are several methods for producing compost on a large scale. The methane digester method places the raw materials in a large, sealed container to exclude oxygen. The resulting oxygen-starved decomposition not only produces compost, but also methane gas, which can be used for cooking or heating. The aerated pile method places the raw materials in piles or trenches containing perforated pipes that circulate air. The resulting oxygen-rich decomposition produces a great amount of heat, which kills most harmful bacteria. The windrow method places the raw materials in long piles, called windrows, where they are allowed to decompose naturally over a period of several weeks or months. It is the least expensive method of all. Here is a typical sequence of operations used to convert municipal yard wastes into compost using the windrow method.
Separating
    1 Yard wastes are deposited in separate containers by homeowners, and the containers are placed at the curb for pickup on the regular refuse collection day. Homeowners are instructed that only certain yard wastes are acceptable for collection. These include grass clippings, leaves, weeds, and small prunings from shrubs and trees. Short pieces of tree limbs up to about 6 in (15 cm) in diameter are also acceptable. Homeowners are also instructed that certain other yard wastes are not acceptable. These include rocks, sod, animal excrement, and excessive amounts of dirt. Palm fronds are prohibited because the frond spikes do not decompose and carry a poison. Food scraps, fruits, and vegetables are also prohibited because they can attract rodents, carry unwanted seeds, and contribute to odors.
    2 The yard wastes are collected by separate refuse trucks and are transported to the processing center where they are dumped in piles. The piles are visually inspected, and any oversized or unacceptable materials are manually removed.

Grinding
    3 A large, wheeled machine called a front loader picks up material from the piles and dumps it into a tub grinder. The tub grinder has a stationary vertical cylindrical outer shell with a rotating cylindrical inner shell. As the material passes between the two shells, it is ground into smaller pieces and thoroughly mixed. The ground material falls out the bottom and through a screen where the larger pieces are screened out. The remaining material is transported by a conveyor belt to a holding pile.
    4 The larger pieces are sold to landscaping companies for use as mulch or ground-cover without further processing. The rest is loaded into large dump trucks and transported to the composting area where it is dumped in long rows, called windrows. Each row is about 6-10 ft (2-3 m) high and several hundred feet (m) long with a triangular cross section. A flat space about 10 ft (3 m) wide is left between each row to allow vehicles to move along the length.

Composting
    5 The composting area may cover several acres (hectares). After a windrow is laid in place, the material is dampened by a tank truck that moves along the row spraying water. The water aids in the composting process and helps minimize wind-blown dust.
    6 Every few weeks, COMPOST TURNER straddles each windrow and moves along its length to turn and agitate the material. This breaks down the material into even smaller pieces and exposes it to oxygen, which aids in the decomposition process. After the windrow is turned, it is sprayed with water again. This process continues for two or three months. In hot, dry weather, the windrows may have to be watered more often. During decomposition, the internal temperature of the pile may reach 130° F (54° C), which helps kill many of the weed seeds that might be present.
See more at: Windrow Composting Process

Curing
    7 The raw compost is scooped up with a front loader and moved to a large conical pile where it is allowed to finish the decomposition process over a period of several weeks. This process is called curing and it allows the carbon and nitrogen in the compost to adjust to their final levels.

Screening

    8 After the compost has cured, it is scooped up with a front loader and dumped into the hopper of a rotary screen. This device consists of a large cylindrical screen rotating on an axis that is slightly inclined above the horizontal. The openings in
    Diogram depicting the commercial processing of yard waste into compost.
    Diogram depicting the commercial processing of yard waste into compost.
    the screen are about 0.5 in (1 cm) in diameter. The compost is fed into the raised end of the rotating screen from the hopper by a conveyor belt. As the compost tumbles its way down the length of the rotating screen, the smaller material falls through the screen and is moved to a storage pile by a conveyor belt. The larger material that cannot pass through the screen falls out the lower end of the cylinder and is either returned to the compost piles for further decomposition or is sold as wood chips.

Distributing

    9 Much of the finished compost is loaded into large dump trucks and sold in bulk to landscaping companies, municipalities, nurseries, and other commercial customers. Some of it is sealed in 40 lb (18 kg) plastic bags for retail sale to homeowners. Using the windrow method, a typical suburban yard waste processing facility can produce as much as 100,000 tons (91,000 metric tons) of compost a year.

November 21 2017

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fertilizermachine
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Application & Working Process of Organic Fertilizer Machine

Organic fertilizer (biological) granulator is in round configuration to make cylindrical particles a rolling ball, no return, high rate of ball granule, good strength, beautiful and applicable, and hence the machine becomes the ideal equipment of globular particles in organic fertilizer (biological). India is a large agricultural nation, there is lots of organic fertilizer, and many villagers do not know how the rational use of fertilizers, resulting in a lot of waste. So the demand for granulators is big.

We are all know the modern organic fertilizer is produced by organic fertilizer equipment, the organic fertilizer production has been mechanized, large-scale, integrated processing, below we went into the production process of organic fertilizer equipment.

The way of traditional organic fertilizer pelletizing is mainly through the disc for molding. Disc Pelletizer through high speed revolves result the raw materials rolling in balls. On the process of the molding, you need add some water to increase the rate of shaping. So the organic fertilizer pellets would be a little more loose, not hard, easy to broken and out of shape,

This would bring some unnecessary risks on product organic fertilizer.

The production of organic fertilizer according to the organic fertilizer functional effects decision, workers then first a variety of raw materials required pulverized into a certain degree of fineness of organic materials, in accordance with Formulation in a blender Hunban, in this process, the key step is proportion to add a 'bio-fermentation agents, Hunban into the fermentation tank, so the area is very small, deep pool aerobic fermentation, the fermentation process without manual saves fermentation costs due to full mechanization production, fermentation so evenly, no dead ends, from the process to ensure product quality organic fertilizer. After one night, the raw material input temperature soon rose up, up to 70 degrees, this time, the staff start turning throwing equipment, at the same time open the blast equipment, to be turned toss after the end of the pond is already fermented finished, new raw materials into the fermentation tank, and so the cycle.

Organic fertilizer granulator equipment to show the production process, to understand and know how it carried out the production of organic fertilizer, it helps to fully play its fertilising application of organic manure.

November 20 2017

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November 15 2017

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1912 b903 500
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Benefits of drying raw manure

Disposal and storage of raw poultry manure has become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Poultry manure begins to decompose immediately after excretion giving off ammonia which, in high concentrations, can have adverse effects on the health and productivity of birds as well as the health of the farm workers. Application to land is the most common way for utilizing poultry manure as a viable source of major plant nutrients and soil conditioner to improve soil tilth and reduce the problems associated with soil compaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying depth and temperature on the nutritional profile of dried poultry manure and its suitability as a plant fertilizer. Drying temperature and manure depth had no significant effects on manure pH, but the loss of ammonia during the drying process decreased the pH (from 8.4 to 6.4-6.7). Greater nitrogen losses (44-55 %) were observed at the deeper manure layer (3 cm) and the higher temperature (60°C) which resulted in a reduction of N:P:K (from 4.58:1.29:1 to 2.07:1.30:1-2.57:1.28:1). Drying of poultry manure helped reduce the presence and offensiveness of odor by 65.3 and 69.3%, respectively. Drying of poultry manure also achieved significant reductions in bacteria (65.6-99.8%), yeast and mold (74.1-99.6%) and E. coli (99.97 %). Dried poultry manure can be used as a fertilizer source for plants because of its high nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents which are essential for plant growth. Other elements (such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt and zinc) which are lacking in commercial fertilizer are also present in manure in significant amounts.
Several solid-liquid separation techniques have been tried for poultry manure treatment before land application. These include: mechanical separation, filtration, stationary screens and thermal separation or drying. Among these, drying is one of the most common method used to prevent environmental problems associated with application of raw manure.
Drying results in the removal of moisture from the manure thereby reducing the rate of deterioration from chemical and biological activities. It improves manure stickiness and hence makes manure handling easier. You can click Cow Dung Organic Fertilizer Technology to see more information on management of cow manure.

November 14 2017

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To be a better girl. smile

November 13 2017

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Windrow composting

Windrow composting is a very well established technology for dealing with food & kitchen waste, agricultural & green wastes, and also Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The material is shredded and then piled in elongated rows (windrows) and aerated through either turning of the windrows or by forcing air through the material. Windrow composting may take place in buildings or externally.

-Long, narrow piles agitated/turned regularly.
-Aeration by natural/passive air movement.
-Better suited to larger volumes.
-Composting time: 3 - 6 Months.

Mobile equipment is needed.
-Grinder/Shredder
-Tractor/FEL
- Windrow Turner
 ·tractor-pulled compost turner
 ·self-propelled compost turner
-Screener
Manual labor costs excessive without equipment.
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IN-VESSEL COMPOSTING SYSTEMS

IN-VESSEL COMPOSTING SYSTEMS
-Technology of horizontal concrete reactors, with air injection through an aerated floor.
-Front end loader feeding or automatic telescopic belt loading.
-Automatic full Process control. Adaptation of process recipe to different waste types.
-Maximum efficiency surface used / treatment capacity.
-Total independence of weather conditions and minimised environmental impact.
Each tunnel is provided with aeration from a plenum chamber located underneath the tunnel floor, and connected to it by a series of perforations in tracks along the tunnel length. Process air is blown through the composting mix via centrifugal fans connected to the plenum; used process air is drawn from the top of the tunnel and recycled through a closed loop pipe system.

When is required by the process, the exhaust process air can be evacuated to atmosphere through a water scrubber and biofilter. Fresh air is then be feed in, again, according to process requirements. The mix may be moistened using water (or, the leachate itself generated by the waste or even effluent from the WWTP) applied from spray bars above the mixture.After loading has been completed, the tunnel is closed and composting process starts.

Providing that the mix has been properly prepared and loaded, composting will proceed through the receipt within 14 days. A number of sensors in the tunnel and in the composting mix measure the temperature of the mix, the air pressure head loss across the mix and the oxygen content and humidity of the exhaust process air. These parameters are fed via a PLC into the CPU, and compared with set points adjusted automatically for the raw material component and mix ratios. The CPU thus facilitates smooth transitions between the phases of the composting process by varying such operating parameters as recycle/fresh air mix, fan speed, water spraying etc
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