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December 02 2017

2622 21b2 500

Compost Manufacturing Process

Compost Manufacturing Process
The production of compost is both a mechanical and a biological process. The raw materials must first be separated, collected, and shredded by mechanical means before the biological decomposition process can begin. In some cases, the decomposition process itself is aided by mechanical agitation or aeration of the materials. After decomposition, the finished compost is mechanically screened and bagged for distribution.

There are several methods for producing compost on a large scale. The methane digester method places the raw materials in a large, sealed container to exclude oxygen. The resulting oxygen-starved decomposition not only produces compost, but also methane gas, which can be used for cooking or heating. The aerated pile method places the raw materials in piles or trenches containing perforated pipes that circulate air. The resulting oxygen-rich decomposition produces a great amount of heat, which kills most harmful bacteria. The windrow method places the raw materials in long piles, called windrows, where they are allowed to decompose naturally over a period of several weeks or months. It is the least expensive method of all. Here is a typical sequence of operations used to convert municipal yard wastes into compost using the windrow method.
    1 Yard wastes are deposited in separate containers by homeowners, and the containers are placed at the curb for pickup on the regular refuse collection day. Homeowners are instructed that only certain yard wastes are acceptable for collection. These include grass clippings, leaves, weeds, and small prunings from shrubs and trees. Short pieces of tree limbs up to about 6 in (15 cm) in diameter are also acceptable. Homeowners are also instructed that certain other yard wastes are not acceptable. These include rocks, sod, animal excrement, and excessive amounts of dirt. Palm fronds are prohibited because the frond spikes do not decompose and carry a poison. Food scraps, fruits, and vegetables are also prohibited because they can attract rodents, carry unwanted seeds, and contribute to odors.
    2 The yard wastes are collected by separate refuse trucks and are transported to the processing center where they are dumped in piles. The piles are visually inspected, and any oversized or unacceptable materials are manually removed.

    3 A large, wheeled machine called a front loader picks up material from the piles and dumps it into a tub grinder. The tub grinder has a stationary vertical cylindrical outer shell with a rotating cylindrical inner shell. As the material passes between the two shells, it is ground into smaller pieces and thoroughly mixed. The ground material falls out the bottom and through a screen where the larger pieces are screened out. The remaining material is transported by a conveyor belt to a holding pile.
    4 The larger pieces are sold to landscaping companies for use as mulch or ground-cover without further processing. The rest is loaded into large dump trucks and transported to the composting area where it is dumped in long rows, called windrows. Each row is about 6-10 ft (2-3 m) high and several hundred feet (m) long with a triangular cross section. A flat space about 10 ft (3 m) wide is left between each row to allow vehicles to move along the length.

    5 The composting area may cover several acres (hectares). After a windrow is laid in place, the material is dampened by a tank truck that moves along the row spraying water. The water aids in the composting process and helps minimize wind-blown dust.
    6 Every few weeks, COMPOST TURNER straddles each windrow and moves along its length to turn and agitate the material. This breaks down the material into even smaller pieces and exposes it to oxygen, which aids in the decomposition process. After the windrow is turned, it is sprayed with water again. This process continues for two or three months. In hot, dry weather, the windrows may have to be watered more often. During decomposition, the internal temperature of the pile may reach 130° F (54° C), which helps kill many of the weed seeds that might be present.
See more at: Windrow Composting Process

    7 The raw compost is scooped up with a front loader and moved to a large conical pile where it is allowed to finish the decomposition process over a period of several weeks. This process is called curing and it allows the carbon and nitrogen in the compost to adjust to their final levels.


    8 After the compost has cured, it is scooped up with a front loader and dumped into the hopper of a rotary screen. This device consists of a large cylindrical screen rotating on an axis that is slightly inclined above the horizontal. The openings in
    Diogram depicting the commercial processing of yard waste into compost.
    Diogram depicting the commercial processing of yard waste into compost.
    the screen are about 0.5 in (1 cm) in diameter. The compost is fed into the raised end of the rotating screen from the hopper by a conveyor belt. As the compost tumbles its way down the length of the rotating screen, the smaller material falls through the screen and is moved to a storage pile by a conveyor belt. The larger material that cannot pass through the screen falls out the lower end of the cylinder and is either returned to the compost piles for further decomposition or is sold as wood chips.


    9 Much of the finished compost is loaded into large dump trucks and sold in bulk to landscaping companies, municipalities, nurseries, and other commercial customers. Some of it is sealed in 40 lb (18 kg) plastic bags for retail sale to homeowners. Using the windrow method, a typical suburban yard waste processing facility can produce as much as 100,000 tons (91,000 metric tons) of compost a year.

November 21 2017

4421 44a9 500

Application & Working Process of Organic Fertilizer Machine

Organic fertilizer (biological) granulator is in round configuration to make cylindrical particles a rolling ball, no return, high rate of ball granule, good strength, beautiful and applicable, and hence the machine becomes the ideal equipment of globular particles in organic fertilizer (biological). India is a large agricultural nation, there is lots of organic fertilizer, and many villagers do not know how the rational use of fertilizers, resulting in a lot of waste. So the demand for granulators is big.

We are all know the modern organic fertilizer is produced by organic fertilizer equipment, the organic fertilizer production has been mechanized, large-scale, integrated processing, below we went into the production process of organic fertilizer equipment.

The way of traditional organic fertilizer pelletizing is mainly through the disc for molding. Disc Pelletizer through high speed revolves result the raw materials rolling in balls. On the process of the molding, you need add some water to increase the rate of shaping. So the organic fertilizer pellets would be a little more loose, not hard, easy to broken and out of shape,

This would bring some unnecessary risks on product organic fertilizer.

The production of organic fertilizer according to the organic fertilizer functional effects decision, workers then first a variety of raw materials required pulverized into a certain degree of fineness of organic materials, in accordance with Formulation in a blender Hunban, in this process, the key step is proportion to add a 'bio-fermentation agents, Hunban into the fermentation tank, so the area is very small, deep pool aerobic fermentation, the fermentation process without manual saves fermentation costs due to full mechanization production, fermentation so evenly, no dead ends, from the process to ensure product quality organic fertilizer. After one night, the raw material input temperature soon rose up, up to 70 degrees, this time, the staff start turning throwing equipment, at the same time open the blast equipment, to be turned toss after the end of the pond is already fermented finished, new raw materials into the fermentation tank, and so the cycle.

Organic fertilizer granulator equipment to show the production process, to understand and know how it carried out the production of organic fertilizer, it helps to fully play its fertilising application of organic manure.

November 20 2017


November 15 2017

1912 b903 500

Benefits of drying raw manure

Disposal and storage of raw poultry manure has become an environmental problem because of the associated air, water and soil pollution. Poultry manure begins to decompose immediately after excretion giving off ammonia which, in high concentrations, can have adverse effects on the health and productivity of birds as well as the health of the farm workers. Application to land is the most common way for utilizing poultry manure as a viable source of major plant nutrients and soil conditioner to improve soil tilth and reduce the problems associated with soil compaction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of drying depth and temperature on the nutritional profile of dried poultry manure and its suitability as a plant fertilizer. Drying temperature and manure depth had no significant effects on manure pH, but the loss of ammonia during the drying process decreased the pH (from 8.4 to 6.4-6.7). Greater nitrogen losses (44-55 %) were observed at the deeper manure layer (3 cm) and the higher temperature (60°C) which resulted in a reduction of N:P:K (from 4.58:1.29:1 to 2.07:1.30:1-2.57:1.28:1). Drying of poultry manure helped reduce the presence and offensiveness of odor by 65.3 and 69.3%, respectively. Drying of poultry manure also achieved significant reductions in bacteria (65.6-99.8%), yeast and mold (74.1-99.6%) and E. coli (99.97 %). Dried poultry manure can be used as a fertilizer source for plants because of its high nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents which are essential for plant growth. Other elements (such as calcium, magnesium, sulfur, boron, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt and zinc) which are lacking in commercial fertilizer are also present in manure in significant amounts.
Several solid-liquid separation techniques have been tried for poultry manure treatment before land application. These include: mechanical separation, filtration, stationary screens and thermal separation or drying. Among these, drying is one of the most common method used to prevent environmental problems associated with application of raw manure.
Drying results in the removal of moisture from the manure thereby reducing the rate of deterioration from chemical and biological activities. It improves manure stickiness and hence makes manure handling easier. You can click Cow Dung Organic Fertilizer Technology to see more information on management of cow manure.

November 14 2017

2235 d907 500
To be a better girl. smile

November 13 2017


Windrow composting

Windrow composting is a very well established technology for dealing with food & kitchen waste, agricultural & green wastes, and also Municipal Solid Waste (MSW). The material is shredded and then piled in elongated rows (windrows) and aerated through either turning of the windrows or by forcing air through the material. Windrow composting may take place in buildings or externally.

-Long, narrow piles agitated/turned regularly.
-Aeration by natural/passive air movement.
-Better suited to larger volumes.
-Composting time: 3 - 6 Months.

Mobile equipment is needed.
- Windrow Turner
 ·tractor-pulled compost turner
 ·self-propelled compost turner
Manual labor costs excessive without equipment.


-Technology of horizontal concrete reactors, with air injection through an aerated floor.
-Front end loader feeding or automatic telescopic belt loading.
-Automatic full Process control. Adaptation of process recipe to different waste types.
-Maximum efficiency surface used / treatment capacity.
-Total independence of weather conditions and minimised environmental impact.
Each tunnel is provided with aeration from a plenum chamber located underneath the tunnel floor, and connected to it by a series of perforations in tracks along the tunnel length. Process air is blown through the composting mix via centrifugal fans connected to the plenum; used process air is drawn from the top of the tunnel and recycled through a closed loop pipe system.

When is required by the process, the exhaust process air can be evacuated to atmosphere through a water scrubber and biofilter. Fresh air is then be feed in, again, according to process requirements. The mix may be moistened using water (or, the leachate itself generated by the waste or even effluent from the WWTP) applied from spray bars above the mixture.After loading has been completed, the tunnel is closed and composting process starts.

Providing that the mix has been properly prepared and loaded, composting will proceed through the receipt within 14 days. A number of sensors in the tunnel and in the composting mix measure the temperature of the mix, the air pressure head loss across the mix and the oxygen content and humidity of the exhaust process air. These parameters are fed via a PLC into the CPU, and compared with set points adjusted automatically for the raw material component and mix ratios. The CPU thus facilitates smooth transitions between the phases of the composting process by varying such operating parameters as recycle/fresh air mix, fan speed, water spraying etc
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